| 名人生平 |
| Bill Gates || When Bill Gates made his decision to drop out from Harvard, he did not care too much of the result. Gates entered Harvard in 1973, and dropped out two years later when he and Allen started the engine of Microsoft. Many people did not understand why Gates gave up such a good opportunity to study in the world’s No.1 University. However, with size comes power, Microsoft dominates the PC market with its operating systems, such as MS-DOS and Windows. Now, Microsoft becomes the biggest software company in the world and Bill Gates becomes the richest man in the world. |
| Thomas Edison || We can learn from the experience of the great inventor Thomas Alva Edison that sometimes a series of apparent failures is really a precursor to success. The voluminous personal papers of Edison reveal that his inventions typically did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous works. |
| Mother Teresa || Mother Teresa, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, dedicated the majority of her life to helping the poorest of the poor in India, thus gaining her the name "Saint of the Gutters." The devotion towards the poor won her respect throughout the world and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. She founded an order of nuns called the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India dedicated to serving the poor. Almost 50 years later, the Missionaries of Charity have grown from 12 sisters in India to over 3,000 in 517 missions throughout 100 countries worldwide. |
| Diana Spencer || Lady Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales, is remembered and respected by people all over the world more for her beauty, kindness, humanity and charitable activities than for her technical skills. |
| Nelson Mandela || Mandela, the South African black political leader and former president, was awarded 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to antiracism and antiapartheid. Nelson Mandela is one of the great moral and political leaders of our time: an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country. Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the centre of the most compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality. |
| Beethoven || Beethoven, the German Composer, began to lose his hearing in 1801 and was entirely deaf by 1819. However, this obstacle could not keep him from becoming one of the most famous and prolific composers in art history. His music, including 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, several senates and so on, forms a transition from classical to romantic composition. |
| George Bush || On January 16, 1991, President Bush ordered the commencement of Operation Desert Storm, a massive U.S.-led military offensive against Iraq in the Persian Gulf. |
In late 1992, Bush ordered U.S. troops into Somalia, a nation devastated by drought and civil war. The peacekeeping mission would prove the most disastrous since Lebanon, and President Clinton abruptly called it off in 1993.
| Jimmy Carter |
| President Carter's policy of placing human rights records at the forefront of America's relationships with other nations contributed to a cooling of Cold War relations in the late 1970s. |
In 1980, for the first time in seven years, Fidel Castro authorized emigration out of Cuba by the country's citizens. The United States welcomed the Cubans, but later took steps to slow the tide when evidence suggested that Castro was using the refugee flight to empty his prisons.
| Neville Chamberlain |
| In 1938, British Prime Minister Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact with Adolf Hitler, an agreement that gave Czechoslovakia away to Nazi conquest while bringing, as Chamberlain promised, "peace in our time." |
Eleven months after the signing of the Munich Pact, Germany broke the peace in Europe by invading Poland. A solemn Chamberlain had no choice but to declare war, and World War II began in Europe.
| Winston Churchill || In the early 1930s, Conservative M.P. Winston Churchill issued unheeded warnings of the threat of Nazi aggression from his seat on a House of Commons backbench. |
With German tanks racing across France, Churchill spoke to the British people for the first time as prime minister, and pledged a struggle to the last breath against Nazi conquest and oppression.
In the summer of 1940, the democracies of continental Europe fell to Germany one by one, leaving Great Britain alone in its resistance to Adolf Hitler. The Nazi leader was confident that victory against Britain would come soon, but Churchill prophesied otherwise, telling his countrymen that the Battle of Britain would be "their finest hour."
| Bill Clinton |
| In 1994, President Clinton authorized a military operation to overthrow Haiti's military dictators and restore its democratically elected leader. On the eve of invasion, bloodshed was prevented when former president Jimmy Carter brokered an agreement with Haiti's leaders in which they pledged to give up power. |
| Dwight D. Eisenhower || On June 5, 1944, the supreme Allied commander ordered commencement of the D-Day invasion, the largest combined sea, air, and land military operation in history. Eisenhower told the 3 million men of the Allied Expeditionary Force, "The eyes of the world are upon you!" |
In 1956, Israel, Britain, and France invaded Egypt in protest of its nationalization of the Suez Canal. The U.S.S.R. and the United States, both vying for greater influence in the Middle East, forced the three nations to end their occupation of the strategic canal.
| Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret || During the Battle of Britain, the children of King George VI delivered a radio address to British children who had been evacuated abroad. Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret, like their parents, weathered the dark days of World War II in Britain. |
| Gerald Ford || Nine days before the fall of Saigon, President Ford spoke on the resignation of South Vietnamese President Thieu. Soon after, the United States launched a massive helicopter evacuation of tens of thousands of anticommunist South Vietnamese and the last few Americans remaining in the country. |
| Mohandas Gandhi |
| In 1931, Gandhi, the political and spiritual leader of the Indian independence movement, was released from prison to attend the London Round Table Conference on India as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. |
| Gorbachev |
| As leader of the U.S.S.R., Mikhail Gorbachev was a great force for peace, even at the cost of the Soviet government's downfall after 74 years in power. |
| Adolf Hitler |
| A few days before his occupation of the Sudetenland, a confident Hitler addressed a Nazi rally at Berlin's Sportpalast stadium, and reassured the crowd that if war came with Britain and France the German Wehrmacht would be victorious. |
| Pope John Paul II || In 1995, the pope addressed the United Nations on the occasion of its 50th anniversary. Reaffirming his support of the ideals and goals of the U.N., he praised the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and called for the U.N. to become the moral center of a family of nations. |
| Nikita Khrushchev and Richard Nixon |
| In a defining moment of the Cold War, Vice President Nixon and Soviet leader Khrushchev engaged in an impromptu debate about the merits and disadvantages of capitalism and communism. The exchange, which took place in Moscow in front of a replica of a suburban American kitchen, was known as the "Kitchen Debate." |
| Douglas MacArthur |
| On September 2, 1945, aboard the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay, the most destructive war in human history officially came to an end as representatives of the Japanese government and military signed their country's unconditional surrender. |
After clashing with President Truman over war policy, MacArthur was relieved of his command of U.N. forces in Korea and returned to the U.S. for the first time since before World War II. Given a hero's welcome, he addressed a joint meeting of Congress, where he declared, "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away."
| Richard Nixon |
| In 1973, after five years of talks, the United States and North Vietnam reached a peace agreement to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam. Two years later, Saigon fell to North Vietnamese forces and Vietnam was unified under Communist rule. |
| Ronald Reagan || In 1984, Reagan called for an international ban on chemical weapons. Six years later, President Bush and Soviet leader Gorbachev would sign a historic agreement to cease production and begin destruction of both nations' sizable reserves. |
In 1987, during a visit to Berlin, the president made a dramatic plea to Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down" the Berlin Wall. Two years later, Berliners would do so on their own accord.
| Franklin D. Roosevelt || The day after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress, and proclaimed December 7 "a date which will live in infamy." With only one dissent, Congress granted his request for an official declaration of war against Japan. |
Two months before his death, Roosevelt met Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin for the last time at Yalta in the U.S.S.R. The "Big Three" leaders discussed military considerations in the war against Germany and Japan, and compromised on their visions of the postwar world order.